Garden Cuttings - volume two 2000 - 2001

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Waste arisings in households in amounted to 3,, tonnes, which means the figure is unchanged from Domestic waste amounts also remain virtually unchanged from the previous year - showing only a slight increase of 25, tonnes. The reductions in total household waste arisings are therefore to be found in amounts of bulky waste and garden waste, which have fallen by 7 per cent and 12 per cent respectively. Domestic waste, however, still makes up the largest part of total household waste generation, namely 55 per cent.

Source: ISAG reports. Table 15 shows several changes among the different household waste fractions, so that paper and cardboard, bottles and glass, and ferrous metals have increased by 6 per cent, 38 per cent, and 41 per cent respectively compared to waste arisings in These increases are balanced by decreases in the fractions garden waste and hazardous waste, which have fallen by 10 per cent and 54 per cent respectively compared to the previous year.

In Table 16 household waste generation is stated per capita and per household. Amounts are moreover analysed between selected waste types and separately collected waste fractions. Total household waste generation stated per capita amounted to kg in , which is 11 kg less than in Stated per household, waste production amounted to kg in , which is 33 kg less than in Domestic waste amounts per capita and per household were kg and kg respectively in Compared to , this means a slight increase of 4 kg per capita, while the amount per household has decreased by 7 kg.

Statistics Denmark figures on population growth and number of households have been used. Note that Table 15 and 16 are not directly comparable, as Table 15 concerns waste production analysed by fractions while Table 16 also includes waste types. Domestic waste generated by households covers ordinary waste from private household consumption. This includes paper, bottles, glass, organic food waste, and other waste.

Usually, domestic waste is collected from households at regular intervals once a week or once every other week. As mentioned above, domestic waste amounted to 1,, tonnes in , which is 25, tonnes more than in Since , domestic waste arisings have varied slightly from year to year without showing any clear trend. Throughout the whole period from to , arisings have been stable, cf.

Table 1. In , 16 per cent of domestic waste was recycled, while 82 per cent was incinerated and 3 per cent landfilled. Compared to , this means a 2 per cent decrease in amounts led to landfill, which is balanced by a 2 per cent increase of the recycling rate. For the years before , packaging waste is included as part of the waste type domestic waste. To make comparison with previous years possible, the , tonnes of packaging waste have been included in the calculations in Figure As the table shows, the relative distribution in the period to among treatment options has varied slightly.

If considering the whole period, the trend since has shown that around 80 per cent of domestic waste is incinerated, while 15 per cent is recycled and 5 per cent led to landfill. Thus, compared to Waste 21 targets, there is still too much waste being incinerated and landfilled. Note that assigning organic domestic waste to incineration is mandatory.

However, for islands that do not have a land connection to the mainland there is an exemption from this obligation. Source: Same as Tables 1 and 2. Bulky waste generated by Danish households amounted to , tonnes in This is 50, tonnes less than in or a 7 per cent decrease in amounts.

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During the period from to bulky waste arisings increased by 10 per cent. The general increase was interrupted only by minor reductions in the and amounts, cf. The general increase in amounts of bulky waste is partly due to a real increase in arisings, but the establishment of waste-collection and waste-delivery schemes also plays a significant role. Figure 11 shows the distribution of bulky waste arisings on the three treatment options: landfilling, incineration, and recycling for the period The period — shows an almost unchanged distribution on treatment options: incineration around 40 per cent, landfilling around 43 per cent, and recycling around 17 per cent.

The rate of bulky waste for incineration rose to 48 per cent in and , while the rate of waste for landfilling fell to 36 per cent. In , 49 per cent of bulky waste was incinerated; the rate for landfilling fell to 26 per cent, and the rate for recycling rose to 18 per cent. The remaining 6 per cent of bulky waste is stored temporarily until incineration capacity becomes available [15]. This means that the real rate of bulky waste for incineration is higher than 49 per cent. The target of a maximum landfilling rate of 37, 5 per cent has thus been reached.

However, still too much bulky waste is being incinerated and not enough is being recycled. If targets for treatment in are to be reached, considerable efforts are required to individually separate and collect more of the different waste fractions in bulky waste. A number of initiatives covering e.

Source: Same as Tables 1 and 2 Note that arisings in have been set to correspond to arisings in Garden waste collected from households in amounted to , tonnes, which is 61, tonnes less than in , corresponding to a fall of 12 per cent. Throughout the s garden waste arisings have increased steadily. During the period from to there was an increase of 59 per cent. This increase should not so much be understood as a real increase in garden waste amounts; rather it is the result of increasing opportunities for householders to dispose of garden waste at municipal treatment plants at the expense of home-composting of waste.

This leads to larger amounts of waste that need to be treated in the municipal system. Garden waste treatment is presented in Figure In , 99 per cent of garden waste was recycled, and 1 per cent was led to landfill. Thereby, targets for recycling and incineration of garden waste from households have been met with a good margin.

Estimates indicate that it is impossible to further increase the recycling rate. Therefore, future efforts with respect to garden waste will concentrate on maintaining the present high recycling rate and to reduce amounts treated in the municipal waste management system. Waste generation from industry amounted to 2,, tonnes in , which is , tonnes or 11 per cent less than in The distribution of waste from industry on mixed and separated fractions is shown in Figure It is seen that "ferrous metals" by far is the largest single fraction followed by the mixed fraction "waste suitable for incineration", separated "paper and cardboard", and "beet soil".

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The relative distribution of total industrial waste on the different fractions remained almost unchanged in compared to However, as mentioned above there has been a decrease in amounts of industrial waste of around , tonnes. These fractions were reduced by 29 per cent, 35 per cent, 7 per cent, 33 per cent, and 19 per cent respectively. By contrast, the fractions "beet soil", "sludge", "hazardous waste", and "other" have shown an increase of 16 per cent, 24 per cent, 90 per cent, and 38 per cent respectively.

The increase of 90 per cent for hazardous waste is due to changes in the ISAG calculation methods. Shredder waste has been registered as hazardous waste in , whereas previously shredder waste was reported as part of the non-hazardous fraction "various unburnable". Shredder waste amounted to 92, tonnes in The treatment of waste from industry is shown in Figure In , 65 per cent of the waste was recycled. In absolute figures, this means 1,, tonnes were recycled in compared to 1,, tonnes in - corresponding to a fall of , tonnes.

The rate of industrial waste incinerated in reached 12 per cent, which is 3 percentage points less than in The rate led to landfill remained almost unchanged from at 22 per cent. This means that the target of landfilling a maximum of 15 per cent of industrial waste has not been met. Still far too much of waste from industry is landfilled. Even if the rates of recycling and landfilling have taken a positive direction since , there is still some way to go before the targets for these two treatment options have been met. Amounts and composition of waste from manufacturing industries depend on the sector generating the waste, as well as size and number of enterprises.

Possibilities of minimising or recycling waste will therefore differ from one waste fraction and sector to another. In order to meet targets in Waste 21, the Danish EPA has selected a number of waste types from industry for special attention. One such waste type is shredder waste. New treatment technologies will contribute to diverting shredder waste from landfilling to recycling. Another waste type in focus is hazardous waste, for which collection schemes will be established with a view to separation and recycling. Through the latest amendment to the Statutory Order on Waste, The Danish EPA has implemented a number of changes to the ISAG system so that from year it will be possible to state figures for waste from industry in eleven different sectors.

In future a number of enterprises [16] must in addition keep a register in a specific format with various information on their waste generation. This will enhance the possibility of conducting sector-specific analyses and initiatives in industry. Waste generation in industry stated by sector and treatment option can be seen in Table As the table shows, almost 35 per cent of industry waste arisings in has been reported with the discontinued source "manufacturing industries etc.

The figures are therefore only indicative of the distribution of waste between the different sectors. The Table does not cover beet soil and ferrous metals reported by large scrap dealers. Note that amounts have been rounded to the nearest hundred. Waste generated by the service sector [17] amounted to 1,, tonnes in , which is , tonnes or 17 per cent more than in Waste from the service sector analysed between mixed and separated fractions is shown in Figure The relative distribution is almost the same in as in The increase in waste arisings from the service sector in is noticeable in all fractions.

These fractions increased by 54 per cent, 8 per cent, 25 per cent, 40 per cent, and 29 per cent respectively compared to Glass is the only fraction showing a fall. The decrease is equivalent to 38 per cent less glass being separated by the service sector. Of the 1,, tonnes of waste generated by the service sector in , 36 per cent was recycled and 49 per cent was incinerated, whereas 12 per cent was led to landfill and 3 per cent was stored temporarily, cf.

Oyediran and Aladejana 24 reported the range of 32 The Fe concentrations obtained in this study were several folds lower than those reported. This confirmed high pollution in the waste dumpsite and its surroundings along the direction of the experimental garden. From the contamination factor and pollution load index values obtained, Cd was the highest contaminant among all the topsoils sampled at the study site, followed by Pb and Fe.

The CF and PLI values for Pb, Cd and Fe in samples collected from the waste dumpsite indicated that the topsoil on the waste dumpsite had the highest pollution, followed by the topsoil along the experimental garden directions in that order. The mean concentrations of Pb, Cd, and Fe in the surface water in the south gradient point of the waste dumpsite, collected from March to July , were compared with the standard NESREA values and reference point control Table 2. Zero was taken as the concentration where the sample metal level was below the detection limit of the instrument.

The results of the bimonthly analysis of surface water samples taken from three points upstream, midstream, and downstream showed that lead and cadmium concentrations in the upstream were 0. The downstream lead concentration ranged from 0. The results obtained showed that the concentration of lead and cadmium in the control stream was 0. Overall, downstream had the highest mean lead concentration 0. The results obtained showed that iron concentration in the upstream ranged from 0. The midstream iron concentration ranged from 0.

The downstream iron concentration ranged from 0. The results obtained showed that iron concentration in the control stream was 0. Overall, downstream had the highest mean iron concentration 0. The results of the studied concentration of lead and cadmium in Omilende stream water showed that downstream had the highest value followed by the midstream. However, lead and cadmium were not detected in the upstream location of the study and the control sites.

This result is in agreement with the observation of Adeagbo 41 that the concentrations of lead and cadmium exceeded the maximum permissible level in surface waters of Olodo, Ikumapaiyi, and Arubiewe. Leachate from the waste batteries and accumulators' dumpsites that came in contact with surface water was considered to be responsible for the high values of the metals.

The location of the midstream at the base of the waste dumpsite and the downstream away from the dumpsite following the direction of the water flow makes the pattern observed in the results of this study similar to that obtained by Adeagbo. Often times, water runoff, a nonpoint source of pollution, carries toxic pollutants from land areas into streams and rivers, thus causing serious aquatic pollution.

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Similarly, according to WHO, 42 contamination of drinking water is a significant concern for public health throughout the world because chemicals in water supplies can cause serious health problems, whether the chemicals are naturally occurring or derived from sources of pollution. Thus, lead and cadmium, along with other heavy metals in the wastes, were eroded from the topsoil by rain water and were deposited into the stream.

This is of considerable health and environmental concerns due to their toxicity and bioaccumulative behavior.

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The general population may get exposed to lead and cadmium, through the consumption of the contaminated Omi stream water, and this could result in acute toxicity over time through the process of bioaccumulation. The concentrations of Pb, Cd, and Fe measured in the different parts of the cultivated maize namely roots, stems, leaves, and grains were compared to values obtained from reference site maize. The cultivated maize root had the highest Pb concentration than the other maize parts. Cd Concentrations : The result obtained showed a significant difference among the mean Cd concentration of the different maize parts.

The cultivated maize root had the highest Cd concentration than the other maize parts. Fe Concentrations : The result obtained showed a significant difference among the mean Fe concentration of the different maize parts. The cultivated maize leaf had the highest Fe concentration than the other maize parts.

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Only the PLI values for Cd were above 1, which indicated that there was higher uptake and accumulation of Cd in the maize plant from the polluted soil of the garden around the waste dumpsite while Pb and Fe levels were at the baseline. Plants have evolved detoxification mechanisms, 47 and the efficiency of these processes might result in the tolerance of the natural heavy metals.

According to Goldsbrough et al. According to Aliu et al. This explains why Fe concentration in the leaf area was high since Fe is essentially required for photosynthesis. Cunningham and Ow 22 stated that plants can thrive in soil contaminated to levels that are often orders of magnitude higher than the standard regulatory limits. Olusoga and Osibanjo 23 obtained similar Pb and Cd concentrations in their study on metals in plant species found in the dumpsite at Olodo area Pb Their results showed that the concentrations exceeded normal range of Pb and Cd in plants, though, the range they reported fall within critical concentrations of these two metals in plants.

Heavy metals like Pb and Cd have been shown to affect plant growth and production in a multiple way especially by inhibiting a number of physiological processes in plants.

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They further stated that this could eventually result in interference with protein metabolism by influencing nitrate and sulfate reduction. Aliu et al. Though the result obtained in this study indicated that the root had the highest concentration for lead and cadmium, the concentration found in the leaf was also significantly high.

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Malecka et al. However, the results of this study affirmed maize as a significant accumulator for Pb, Cd, and Fe. Results obtained in this study likewise showed that the concentration of Cd is relatively low compared to the concentration of Pb. Fe concentration was found significantly less than the level of Fe in the reference site. According to Spectrum Analytic, 20 toxicity of Fe is primarily pH related and its visual symptoms are likely to be the deficiency of other nutrient s.

The dispersal of the heavy metal components of wastes to other parts of the community was also confirmed by the concentrations found in surface water. The result obtained showed significant concentration of the metals in the water body. This further showed that these metals were gradually washed via erosion or leached into the water sources from the soil which had high concentration of the metals.

This calls for urgent attention because lead and cadmium are bioaccumulative in nature, and their continual exposure through the water sources could be detrimental to the residents' health as well as to their animals. Furthermore, heavy metal accumulation in soils and plants is of growing concern due to the potential risks to human health. Consequently, as the analyzed heavy metals' concentration in the most consumed parts of the experimental maize was high, there is a tendency of these metals being transferred to both animals and humans who consume contaminated maize parts regularly.

This may result in several unpleasant health effects, if bioaccumulated. Figures 5 and 6 show the map of Ibadan with the location of the study site and the map of the study area Olodo. The study site was a large and bare expanse of land of about 2 hectares, characterized with scanty vegetation. The most abundant groups of vegetation on and around the waste dumpsite were grasses, some of which included Panicum clandestinum corn grass , Muhlenbergia emersleyi bull grass , and Echinopogon ovatus hedgehog grass.

The area has a bimodal rainfall pattern which peaks in June and September. The area surrounding the waste dumpsite is inhabited by people who are mostly peasant farmers and traders. Some of the residents have gardens in their yard. Among the plants found in these gardens were Z. Domestic animals are raised by residents living around the study area.

Some of them are Gallus gallus domesticus both local and broiler chicken and Capra aegagrus hircus Nigerian Dwarf Dairy Goat. The soil samples were taken at the top region only 0—15 cm deep ; along a straight line from A to B with midpoint M and bulked together to form a composite sample. Geographical Positioning System GPS was employed in acquiring location information on specific points of sample collection during each visit Table 4. The sampling bags were sealed to prevent contamination during transportation to the laboratory and were then taken to the laboratory for processing and analysis.

The digestion of the samples was carried out according to the method adopted by Adie and Osibanjo. The contents were filtered through Whatman's No. A reagent blank sample was taken through the method, analyzed, and subtracted from the samples to correct for reagent impurities and other sources of errors from the environment. The procedure was repeated for all the samples and their replicates.

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Reference soils were also collected and subjected to the same procedural analysis. Sampling Procedure and Analysis—Surface Water : Surface water samples were randomly collected at three representative points along the stream upstream, midstream, and downstream Figure 7. These samples were taken once every 2 months for 18 months. Few drops of HNO 3 were added in order to prevent the loss of metals, and bacterial and fungal growth. Temperature and pH of water samples were also measured at the time of collection.

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The samples were taken to the laboratory and kept frozen in the refrigerator until analysis. The technique is based on the measurement of specific isotopes of these elements. Corrections were made for isobaric interferences and interferences by polyatomics. At maturity, the root, stem, leaf, and grains were harvested. Reference maize plants were also cultivated and the parts were also harvested at maturity.

At the laboratory, each harvested maize part was washed with deionized water to remove any debris prior to drying. About 0. The ash was dissolved in 5 mL of hot 6 m nitric acid and evaporated on a hotplate. After evaporation, 1 mL of 6 m nitric acid was added followed by deionized water, and then the sample solution was filtered. Sampling Procedure and Analysis—Quality Control : Quality control of metal analysis was performed by analyzing reference samples of both plants and soil, and for reagents the quality assurance scheme included blank reagents.

CF is often used to access soil contamination through the comparison of the concentrations in the surface layer to the background values. It is calculated using the equation 1 where CF is the contamination factor, C 0—1 is the mean of concentrations of individual metal from all test sites, C n is the baseline or background concentration of individual concentration of metals at control site.